TAG QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONS TEST PRACTICE 10B

Hi dear grade 10B ladies,

Here are a few questions for you to practice for the test next week.

These are the questions and the students responsible for each one.

1. The tag question for “Mary Ellen scolded James” is “doesn’t he?”

2. The tag question in the sentence “That is not true, isn’t that?” is not correct.

3. The question “Did you tell him the truth?” can be used to confirm information.

4. If a tag question has a rising intonation, the other person is expected to agree.

5. In the sentence and tag, “I am the best teacher, amn’t I” the tag is incorrect.

6. When the subject of a statement is “somebody”, we don’t use a pronoun.

7. The tag question for “Margarita who bought a nice dress is my best friend.” is “didn’t she?”

8. The tag question for the statement “There are a lot of problems.” is “isn’t it”.

 

7. The tag question for “Margarita who bought a nice dress is my best friend.” is “didn’t she?”

8. The tag question for the statement “There are a lot of problems.” is “isn’t it”.

Student

Question

Laura Castro 1
Ma. Luisa 1
Maria Paula 2
Laura Prieto 2
Ma Alejandra Gutierrez 3
Laura Corredor 3
Daniela Pérez 4
Luisa 4
Valeria 5
Delly 5
Claudia 6
Daniela Ortiz 6
Ma Alejandra Guzmán 6
Alejandra Pachón 7
Mariana 7
Ana 8
Paula 8
Vanessa 8
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ADDITIONS SUMMARY

Hi dear grade 10 ladies,

Here’s a summary of ADDITIONS, a topic closely related to TAG QUESTIONS.

It is very important to view the video on additions found here: https://juanpablovanegas.wordpress.com/2012/02/28/additions-video/

And also read the explanations below. They can be found in Focus on Grammar 4, but since some students don’t have the book, especially the new ones, I considered important to leave the PDF files of the corresponding pages.

BOTH ADDITIONS AND TAG QUESTION WILL BE EVALUATED IN THE FORMAL TEST.

ADDITIONS1 ADDITIONS2

 

They were taken from Focus on Grammar 4. All Rights Reserved

TAG QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONS TEST PRACTICE 10A

Hi dear grade 10A ladies,

Here are a few questions for you to practice for the test next week.

These are the questions and the students responsible for each one.

1. The tag question for “Mary Ellen scolded James” is “doesn’t he?”

2. The tag question in the sentence “That is not true, isn’t that?” is not correct.

3. The question “Did you tell him the truth?” can be used to confirm information.

4. If a tag question has a rising intonation, the other person is expected to agree.

5. In the sentence and tag, “I am the best teacher, amn’t I” the tag is incorrect.

6. When the subject of a statement is “somebody”, we don’t use a pronoun.

7. The tag question for “Margarita who bought a nice dress is my best friend.” is “didn’t she?”

8. The tag question for the statement “There are a lot of problems.” is “isn’t it”.

Student

Question

Catalina Ortiz 1
Daniela Abondano 1
Sara 2
Manuela 2
Margarita Gómez 3
Paula 3
Margarita Baquero 4
Valeria 4
Silvana 5
Ximena 5
Laura Arias 6
Laura Gutierrez 6
Natalia 7
Camila Pinzón 7
Catalina Estefan 8
Camila Cardona 8
Daniela Ortiz 8

TAG QUESTIONS CHARTS

tag1

tag2

 

tag3

MACBETH OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH

http://www.enotes.com/macbeth-text/

THIS ONES IS ALSO A GOOD SOURCE OF INFO

http://library.thinkquest.org/2888/

MACBETH HYPERLINK 10A

Hi ladies,

Here is the link that explains Macbeth.

http://library.thinkquest.org/2888/

RENAISSANCE READING 10 GRADE

http://www.nexuslearning.net/books/Elements_of_Lit_Course6/Renaissance/Introduction.htm

WORKSHOP PHRASES

Hello grade 10 ladies.

Here’s a brief explanation of phrases.

Read it and be prepared to do some exercises.

http://www.grammaruntied.com/phrases/phrases.html

By clicking on each of the phrase classes highlighted in green, you can see explanations.

Then do the practice, and in a piece of paper, write the answers.

Simply write the number and the letter to the answer. As soon as you finish,

Then click on the icon that says “Are you prepared” and check your answers.

Once you are done, do the two quizes.

PHRASAL VERB PRACTICE

http://www.englishclub.com/esl-games/matching-phrasal-verbs-01.htm

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/phrasal-verbs/exercises?19

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/phrasal-verbs/exercises?18

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/phrasal-verbs/exercises?10

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/phrasal-verbs/exercises?09

http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/phrasal-verbs-quiz.htm

Canterbury Prologue Vocabulary 10A

Hi grade 10 ladies,

 

Here’s the vocabulary I told you about.

 

As you must remember, we will use the blog as we did with vocabulary last year.

 

For the new ones, I will explain. You will need to look up the word that has been assigned to you.

 

You may use www.thefreedictionary.com which is a reliable source.

 

Once you, find the definition, you must copy and paste it as in the example below.

 

Word: (part of speech) definition.

 

Once you comment, you will receive feedback on the definition provided either if it is right or wrong. Be patient. Your words and definition won’t appear until they are moderated, and it is not instantaneous. Some feedback will take longer than others

 

These are the words and the person responsible for each. Next to each word there is the line where the word is used. Analyze the context before you choose the corresponding definition. There may be more than one definition, but you must select the one that corresponds, so YOU CAN’T USE THE FIRST DEFINITION THAT YOU FIND.

 

1  ABONDANO VILLEGAS, DANIELA Engendering 4
2  ARIAS GONZALEZ, LAURA Stature 85
3  BAQUERO SÁNCHEZ, MARÍA MARGARITA Duress 681
4  CARDONA CABALLERO, MARIA CAMILA Deferred 804
5  CASTRO ROJAS, SARA MARIA Personable 204
6  ESTEFAN GAVIRIA, CATALINA Accrue 253
7  GOMEZ BALLEN, MARGARITA MARIA Extort 496
8  GUTIERREZ AVILA, LAURA Statute 337
9  LEON GIRALDO, MARIA XIMENA Benign 343
10  MENDIETA NIETO, PAULA ANDREA Obstinate 531
11  ORTIZ BERNAL, CATALINA Frugal 601
12  ORTÍZ OCAMPO, DANIELA Discreet 528
13  PINZON ACEVEDO, MARIA CAMILA Pestilence 452
14  RESTREPO PARRA, VALERIA Wrath 461
15  REYES BUITRAGO, LAURA DANIELA Disdainful 527
16  TOLOSA VARGAS, SILVANA Adversity 494
17  TORRES SOLANO, MANUELA ANDREA Diligent 493
18  VARGAS DIAZ, NATALIA Guile (437)

 

 

CANTERBURY TALES ASSIGNMENT 10B

Dear 10 grade students.

 

These are the groups selected and the fragments they will have to read.

 

Below there are the questions and the corresponding groups that have to answer them.

 

You also need to leave the vocabulary you haven’t understood and the corresponding definitions.

 

Group Lines Questions
1

María Luisa

Maria Alejandra Guzman

Alejandra Pachón

 

43-121 (Knight, Squire, Yeoman) 1-14
2

Daniela Pérez

Valeria Hernández

Daniela Ortiz

122- 279 (Prioress, Nun, Monk, Friar) 15-25
3

Laura Castro

Delly

Alejandra Gutierrez

280 – 340 (Merchant, Oxford Cleric, Serjeant at the Law) 26-28
4

Claudia

Vanesa

Paula Vazquez

341 – 454 (Franklin, Tradesmen, Skipper, Doctor) 29 – 37
5

Ana

Paula Valencia

Jimena

Prieto

455 – 640 (Wife of Bath, Parson, Plowman, Miller, Manciple, Reeve) 38 – 48
6

Mariana

Luisa

Laura Corredor

641 – 734 (Summoner, Pardoner) 49 – 56

 

QUESTIONS

 

1          What is Chaucer´s attitude toward corruption in the Church?

2          Mention three important facts about Geoffrey Chaucer´s life.

3       What does Chaucer’s description of the pilgrimage indicate about society in his day?

4       What time of year is the pilgrimage?  Why might people go on a pilgrimage at this time of year?

5       What is the starting point for the pilgrims?  What is their ending point?  Why are they heading here?

6       What does Chaucer say he will do in lines 35-42?  How, or in what manner, willhe do it?

7       What do lines 54-65 indirectly suggest about the Knight’s character?

8       What qualities does the Knight possess that are different from what you might expect in a war-hardened soldier?

9       What does the Knight’s clothing reveal about his character? (75-78)

10    Why is the Knight on the pilgrimage?  (80)  Why did Chaucer start with the Knight?

11    What does the simile in lines 91-92 suggest about the Squire?

12    How does the Squire compare to his father the Knight?  (97-102)

13    Chaucer’s description of the Yeoman is purely visual.  How might the last line of his section be an example of verbal irony?  (121)

14    What is the relationship among the Knight, the Squire and the Yeoman?

15    What two basic qualities does the sentence in lines 141-145 attribute to the Nun?

16    What can be inferred about the Prioress from her view on animals?  (149-154)

17    What can be inferred about the Prioress based on the detailed description of her jewelry?  (160-166)  Coral was considered a defense against worldly temptation as well as a love charm.  Is coral appropriate for a Prioress to wear?

18    What is Chaucer saying about the Prioress by calling her Madam Eglantyne?

19    What is the Monk’s main interest?  (193-196)

20    Identify key elements of the description of the Monk.  (192-211)

21    What do the details about the Monk’s habits and tastes indirectly suggest about religious institutions of the time?

22    Identify key elements of the description of the Friar.

23    One of the Friar’s duties is to hear people’s confessions and to forgive them with a penance or penalty of prayer or doing good work.  What is suggested about this Friar?  (224-228)  (235-238)

24    What characteristics might Chaucer want a white neck to represent? (242)

25    How does the Friar earn his living?  Where should this money be going?

26    What is your impression of the Merchant?  What flaw does he keep hidden?

27    Next to the Knight, the Oxford Cleric is the most admired.  What about him is admirable?  What are the Cleric’s interests?

28    In the description of the Sergeant, what evidence is there of the narrator’s disapproval? (322-323)  (326-327)  (331-332)

29    What are the Franklin’s interests?

30    What question do lines 346-348 answer about the main idea in line 345?

31    What qualities are admirable about the “Tradesmen”?  (371-388)

32    What point is Chaucer making about the relationship between the Tradesmen and their wives?  (380-388)

33    Why does Chaucer wait until the end of the Cook’s description to tell us about the “sore” on his knee?  (395-397)

34    What can be inferred about the Skipper from line 400?

35    What picture of the Skipper is created by the mixture of details about his heart-lessness with details about his competence?  What are two characteristics of the Skipper?

36    What is being said about how the Doctor practices medicine?  (421-428)

37    What is the importance of the Doctor not reading the Bible? (448)

38    What is the Wife of Bath concerned about when she goes to church?  What does this suggest about her character?  (459-460)  (463-467)

39    What words of phrases would you use to describe the Wife of Bath?

40    What do we learn about the Parson from lines 493-500?

41    What is the Parson’s main characteristic? (507)

42    How does Chaucer use his characterization of the Parson to comment on the way priests ought to behave?

43    What social commentary does the description of the Plowman provide?

44    Chaucer praises the Plowman, the Parson and the Cleric.  What qualities do these men share?  How do they differ?

45    To what object and animals is the Miller compared?

46    What does the comparison of the Miller’s hair color to that of a sow or fox indirectly suggest about his character?

47    What is the Miller like?  Why does the Miller follow the Plowman?

48    What is being compared in lines 594-604?

49    What does a summoner do?

50    What cannot be cured?  (647-650)

51    Describe the Summoner.

52    How does the Summoner turn religion to personal profit?  How can he get away  with this?

53    What is the difference between direct and indirect characterization?  Is the characterization of the summoner direct or indirect?  Explain.  (652-659)

54    How does Chaucer describe the Pardoner’s hair?  What is he implying? (695-699)

55    What is the importance of the Pardoner not being able to grow a beard? (709-710)

56    What facts in lines 719-726 indirectly characterize the Pardoner?

57    Who is really the narrator of the tales?  How is he portrayed?

58    Why does Chaucer apologize in the sentence starting with line 745?

59    What do we learn about the Host?  What concern does he raise?

60    What suggestion does the Host give to the pilgrims to help pass the time on their pilgrimage?

61    How will the winner be determined?  Who will decide the winner?

62    What will be the prize?  Who will pay for the prize?

63    How will the story order be determined?

64       What theme does Chaucer convey in “The Prologue”?

CANTERBURY TALES ASSIGNMENT 10A

Dear 10 grade students.

 

These are the groups selected and the fragments they will have to read.

 

Below there are the questions and the corresponding groups that have to answer them.

 

You also need to leave the vocabulary you haven’t understood and the corresponding definitions.

 

Group Lines Questions
1

Margarita Gómez

Camila Cardona

Laura Gutiérrez

43-121 (Knight, Squire, Yeoman) 1-14
2

Daniela Abondano

Valeria Restrepo

Silvana

122- 279 (Prioress, Nun, Monk, Friar) 15-25
3

Camila Pinzón

Paula Mendieta

Manuela

280 – 340 (Merchant, Oxford Cleric, Serjeant at the Law) 26-28
4

Ximena

Margarita Baquero

Catalina Ortiz

341 – 454 (Franklin, Tradesmen, Skipper, Doctor) 29 – 37
5

Sara

Catalina Estefan

Laura Reyes

455 – 640 (Wife of Bath, Parson, Plowman, Miller, Manciple, Reeve) 38 – 48
6

Natalia

Laura Arias

Daniela Ortiz

641 – 734 (Summoner, Pardoner) 49 – 56

 

 

QUESTIONS

 

1          What is Chaucer´s attitude toward corruption in the Church?

2          Mention three important facts about Geoffrey Chaucer´s life.

3       What does Chaucer’s description of the pilgrimage indicate about society in his day?

4       What time of year is the pilgrimage?  Why might people go on a pilgrimage at this time of year?

5       What is the starting point for the pilgrims?  What is their ending point?  Why are they heading here?

6       What does Chaucer say he will do in lines 35-42?  How, or in what manner, willhe do it?

7       What do lines 54-65 indirectly suggest about the Knight’s character?

8       What qualities does the Knight possess that are different from what you might expect in a war-hardened soldier?

9       What does the Knight’s clothing reveal about his character? (75-78)

10    Why is the Knight on the pilgrimage?  (80)  Why did Chaucer start with the Knight?

11    What does the simile in lines 91-92 suggest about the Squire?

12    How does the Squire compare to his father the Knight?  (97-102)

13    Chaucer’s description of the Yeoman is purely visual.  How might the last line of his section be an example of verbal irony?  (121)

14    What is the relationship among the Knight, the Squire and the Yeoman?

15    What two basic qualities does the sentence in lines 141-145 attribute to the Nun?

16    What can be inferred about the Prioress from her view on animals?  (149-154)

17    What can be inferred about the Prioress based on the detailed description of her jewelry?  (160-166)  Coral was considered a defense against worldly temptation as well as a love charm.  Is coral appropriate for a Prioress to wear?

18    What is Chaucer saying about the Prioress by calling her Madam Eglantyne?

19    What is the Monk’s main interest?  (193-196)

20    Identify key elements of the description of the Monk.  (192-211)

21    What do the details about the Monk’s habits and tastes indirectly suggest about religious institutions of the time?

22    Identify key elements of the description of the Friar.

23    One of the Friar’s duties is to hear people’s confessions and to forgive them with a penance or penalty of prayer or doing good work.  What is suggested about this Friar?  (224-228)  (235-238)

24    What characteristics might Chaucer want a white neck to represent? (242)

25    How does the Friar earn his living?  Where should this money be going?

26    What is your impression of the Merchant?  What flaw does he keep hidden?

27    Next to the Knight, the Oxford Cleric is the most admired.  What about him is admirable?  What are the Cleric’s interests?

28    In the description of the Sergeant, what evidence is there of the narrator’s disapproval? (322-323)  (326-327)  (331-332)

29    What are the Franklin’s interests?

30    What question do lines 346-348 answer about the main idea in line 345?

31    What qualities are admirable about the “Tradesmen”?  (371-388)

32    What point is Chaucer making about the relationship between the Tradesmen and their wives?  (380-388)

33    Why does Chaucer wait until the end of the Cook’s description to tell us about the “sore” on his knee?  (395-397)

34    What can be inferred about the Skipper from line 400?

35    What picture of the Skipper is created by the mixture of details about his heart-lessness with details about his competence?  What are two characteristics of the Skipper?

36    What is being said about how the Doctor practices medicine?  (421-428)

37    What is the importance of the Doctor not reading the Bible? (448)

38    What is the Wife of Bath concerned about when she goes to church?  What does this suggest about her character?  (459-460)  (463-467)

39    What words of phrases would you use to describe the Wife of Bath?

40    What do we learn about the Parson from lines 493-500?

41    What is the Parson’s main characteristic? (507)

42    How does Chaucer use his characterization of the Parson to comment on the way priests ought to behave?

43    What social commentary does the description of the Plowman provide?

44    Chaucer praises the Plowman, the Parson and the Cleric.  What qualities do these men share?  How do they differ?

45    To what object and animals is the Miller compared?

46    What does the comparison of the Miller’s hair color to that of a sow or fox indirectly suggest about his character?

47    What is the Miller like?  Why does the Miller follow the Plowman?

48    What is being compared in lines 594-604?

49    What does a summoner do?

50    What cannot be cured?  (647-650)

51    Describe the Summoner.

52    How does the Summoner turn religion to personal profit?  How can he get away  with this?

53    What is the difference between direct and indirect characterization?  Is the characterization of the summoner direct or indirect?  Explain.  (652-659)

54    How does Chaucer describe the Pardoner’s hair?  What is he implying? (695-699)

55    What is the importance of the Pardoner not being able to grow a beard? (709-710)

56    What facts in lines 719-726 indirectly characterize the Pardoner?

57    Who is really the narrator of the tales?  How is he portrayed?

58    Why does Chaucer apologize in the sentence starting with line 745?

59    What do we learn about the Host?  What concern does he raise?

60    What suggestion does the Host give to the pilgrims to help pass the time on their pilgrimage?

61    How will the winner be determined?  Who will decide the winner?

62    What will be the prize?  Who will pay for the prize?

63    How will the story order be determined?

64       What theme does Chaucer convey in “The Prologue”?

THE MIDDLE AGES READING

Introduction
The Middle Ages 

by David Adams Leeming

At his most characteristic, medieval man was not a dreamer nor a wanderer. He was an organizer, a codifier, a builder of systems. He wanted “a place for everything and everything in the right place.” Distinction, definition, and tabulation were his delight. Though full of turbelent activities, he was equally full of the impulse to formalize them. Was was (in intention) formalized by the art of heraldry and the rules of chilvarly; sexual passion (in intention), by the elaborate code of love. . . . There was notheing which medieval people liked better, or did better, than sorting out and tidying up. Of all our modern inventions I suspect that they would most have admired the card index.

C. S. Lewis

In October 1066, a daylong battle near Hastings, England, changed the course of history. There, just ten miles from the channel dividing England from France, Duke William of Normandy, France, defeated and killed King Harold of England, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings. So began the Norman Conquest, an event that radically affected English history, the English character, and the English language. Unlike the Romans, the Normans never withdrew from England.

Who was this William the Conqueror? He was the illegitimate son of the previous duke of Normandy, who was in turn a cousin of the English king called Edward the Confessor. Edward had died childless earlier in 1066, and Harold, the earl of Wessex, had been crowned the following day. But William claimed that the old king had promised the throne to him. Determined to seize what he considered rightfully his, William sailed the English Channel with an enormous army.

William was an efficient and ruthless soldier, but he wanted to rule the Anglo-Saxons, not eliminate them. Today, as a result, rather than a Norman, French-speaking England (and America), we find a culture and a language that combine Norman and Anglo-Saxon elements. To the Anglo-Saxons’ more democratic and artistic tendencies, the Normans brought administrative ability, an emphasis on law and order, and cultural unity.

One of William’s great administrative feats was an inventory of nearly every piece of property in England—land, cattle, buildings—in the Domesday Book. (The title suggests a comparison between William’s judgment of his subjects’ financial worth and God’s final judgment of their moral worth.) For the first time in European history, people could be taxed based on what they owned.

Although the Normans did not erase Anglo-Saxon culture, they did bring significant changes to England. William and many of his successors remained dukes of Normandy as well as kings of England. The powerful Anglo-Norman entity they molded brought England into mainstream European civilization in a new way. For example, William divided the holdings of the fallen English landowners among his own followers. These men and their families brought to England not only a new language—French—but also a new social system—feudalism—which displaced the old Nordic social structure described in Beowulf.

The Anglo-Norman entity that resulted from the Norman Conquest brought England into mainstream European civilization, which included feudalism. 

Feudalism and Knighthood: Pyramid Power

More than simply a social system, feudalism was also a caste system, a property system, and a military system. Ultimately, it was based on a religious concept of hierarchy, with God as the supreme overlord. In this sense, even a king held land as a vassal by “divine right.” A king as powerful as William the Conqueror could stand firmly at the top of the pyramid. He could appoint certain barons as his immediate vassals, allotting them portions of his land in return for their economic or military allegiance—or both. In turn, the barons could appoint vassals of their own. The system operated all the way down to the landless knights and to the serfs, who were not free to leave the land they tilled.

The feudal system did not always work. Secure in a well-fortified castle, a vassal might choose not to honor his obligations to a weak overlord. The ensuing battles between iron-clad knights around moated castles account for one of the enduring images of the Middle Ages.

Yet the feudal system did carry with it a sense of form and manners that permeated the life, art, and literature of the Middle Ages. This sense of formalism came to life most fully in the institution of knighthood and in the related practice, or code, of chivalry.
We cannot think of the medieval period without thinking of knights. Since the primary duty of males above the serf class was military service to their lords, boys were trained from an early age to become warriors. Often, their training took place in houses other than their own, to be sure that the training was strict. When a boy’s training was completed, he was “dubbed,” or ceremonially tapped on his shoulder (originally a hard, testing blow). Once knighted, the youth became a man with the title “sir” and the full rights of the warrior caste.

Knighthood was grounded in the feudal ideal of loyalty, and it entailed a complex system of social codes. Breaking any one of those codes would undermine not only the knight’s position but also the very institution of knighthood. Thus, in the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Collection 2), his code of honor binds Gawain to accept a challenge that he believes will bring him certain death.

Feudalism was a pyramid system based on a religious concept of hierarchy. Expected to serve as warriors, males above the serf class were trained as knights. 

Women in Medieval Society: No Voice, No Choice 

Since they were not soldiers, women had no political rights in a system that was primarily military. A woman was always subservient to a man, whether husband, father, or brother. Her husband’s or father’s social standing determined the degree of respect she commanded. For peasant women, life was a ceaseless round of childbearing, housework, and hard fieldwork. Women of higher station were occupied with childbearing and household supervision. Such women might even manage entire estates while their men were away on business or at war, but the moment the men returned, the women relinquished their temporary powers.

Women in the Middle Ages had no political rights. A woman’s social standing depended completely on her husband’s or father’s status. 

Chivalry and Courtly Love: Ideal but Unreal 

Chivalry was a system of ideals and social codes governing the behavior of knights and gentlewomen. Among its precepts were adhering to one’s oath of loyalty to the overlord and observing certain rules of warfare, such as never attacking an unarmed opponent. In addition, adoring a particular lady (not necessarily one’s wife) was seen as a means of achieving self-improvement.
The idea that revering and acting in the name of a lady would make a knight braver and better was central to one aspect of chivalry, courtly love. Courtly love was, in its ideal form, nonsexual. A knight might wear his lady’s colors in battle, he might glorify her in words and be inspired by her, but the lady always remained pure and out of reach. She was “set above” her admirer, just as the feudal lord was set above his vassel. Since such a concept flew in the face of human nature, it provided built-in drama for poets and storytellers, as the King Arthur sagas illustrate. When Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere, for example, cross the line between courtly and physical love, the whole social system represented by Arthur’s Round Table collapses. Camelot crumbles.

Chivalry brought about an idealized attitude toward women, but it did little to improve their actual position. A woman’s perceived value remained tied to the value of the lands she brought to a marriage. But chivalry did give rise to a new form of literature, the romance (see Elements of Literature for “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” in Collection 2). The greatest English example of the genre is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Wandering minstrels told many other romances, but most of them were the equivalents of dum-de-dum doggerel verse today.

Chivalry led to an idealized attitude toward women and gave rise to a new form of literature, the romance. 

The Middle Ages: Four Centuries of Change

These characteristics distinguished the Middle Ages:

• The Norman Conquest of England created a powerful Anglo-Norman entity and brought England into the mainstream of European civilization.

• The feudal system centralized military, political, and economic power in the Crown.

• The Roman Church transcended national boundaries and fostered cultural unity among Europeans.

• The rise of towns and cities freed people to pursue their own commercial and artistic interests.

• The Magna Carta weakened the political power of the Church and laid the groundwork for later English constitutional law.

• Exposure to Eastern civilization as a result of the Crusades broadened Europeans’ intellectual horizons.

• The ideals of chivalry improved attitudes toward, but not the rights of, women.

• The rise of the yeoman class paved the way for democracy in England.

• The bubonic plague created a labor shortage that contributed to the end of feudalism and to the passing of the Middle Ages.

The New City Classes: Out from Under the Overlords

For the most part, medieval society centered around the feudal castle, but as the population grew, an increasing number of people lived in towns and cities. Eventually, those population centers would render the feudal system obsolete.

The development of the city classes—lower, middle, and upper-middle—is evident in the works of Geoffrey Chaucer (Collection 2). Many of his characters make their livings outside the feudal system, and their horizons are defined not by any lord’s manor but by such cities as London and Canterbury.

More important, the emerging merchant class had its own tastes in the arts and the ability to pay for what it wanted. Consequently, much medieval art is not aristocratic; it is middle class, even “people’s art.” The people of the cities were free, tied neither to the land nor to knighthood and chivalry. Their point of view was expressed in the ballads sung in alehouses and at firesides (see “Ballads,” Collection 2), in the mystery and miracle plays performed outdoors by the new guilds or craft unions, and even in the great cathedrals and municipal buildings that are synonymous with England to so many tourists today.

Gradually population centers shifted to the cities, where people lived and worked outside of the feudal system. 

The Great Happenings 

Against the backdrop of the feudal system imported from the Continent, several specific events radically influenced the course of English history, as well as English literature.

The Crusades: Ho! for the Holy Land. In Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, we meet a knight who has fought in “heathen” places—along the Mediterranean Sea and in North Africa. The knight’s adventures in the fourteenth century were really an extension of the Crusades (1095–1270), a series of wars waged by European Christians against the Muslims, with Jerusalem and the Holy Land as the prize. Although the Europeans ultimately failed to hold Jerusalem, they benefited enormously from contact with the higher civilization of the Middle East. This contact with Eastern mathematics, astronomy, architecture, and crafts made possible the rich, varied life we find in Chaucer. If the Crusades produced Chaucer’s fairly conventional Knight, they were also at least indirectly responsible for his lively Squire and elegant Prioress.

As a result of the Crusades, Christian Europe was exposed to the Middle East’s sophisticated civilization. 

The martyrdom of Thomas à Becket: Murder in the cathedral. When Chaucer’s pilgrims set out for Canterbury, their goal was the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket (c. 1118–1170). Thomas, a Norman, had risen to great power as chancellor (prime minister) under his friend King Henry II (reigned 1154–1189). At that time, all Christians belonged to the Catholic Church. Even King Henry was a vassal—of the pope, the head of the Church and God’s representative. The pope in those days was enormously powerful and controlled most of the crowned heads of Europe. By appointing his trusted friend Thomas as archbishop of Canterbury (head of the Catholic Church in England), Henry hoped to gain the upper hand in disputes with the Church. But the independent and often combative Thomas took the pope’s side more than once, infuriating the king. In December 1170, Henry raged, “Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” Taking his words literally, four of Henry’s knights murdered Becket—right in his own cathedral. Public outrage at the murder led to devotion to St. Thomas the Martyr, and created a backlash against Henry, a significant setback for the monarchy in its power struggles with Rome.

At its worst, this setback led to the kinds of liberties taken by several of the clergymen in The Canterbury Tales—corruption that the state was in no position to correct. Thus, Chaucer’s Monk lives a life of luxury without regard to the poor, his Friar chases women and money, and his Summoner and his Pardoner blackmail people with threats of eternal damnation.

Yet the medieval Church did have one positive effect: It fostered cultural unity—a system of belief and symbol that transcended the national cultures of Europe. The Church continued to be the center of learning. Its monasteries were the libraries and publishers of the time, and its language, Latin, remained the international language of educated Europeans. Its leader, the pope, was king of all kings—and his “kingdom” had no boundaries.

Public outrage at the political assassination of Thomas à Becket created a backlash against the English monarchy and weakened the king in his power struggle with Rome. 

The Magna Carta: Power to (some of) the people. The event that most clearly heralded a return to older, democratic tendencies in England was the signing of the Magna Carta (the “Great Charter”) by King John in 1215, at Runnymede. The vicious but pragmatic John was strongly backed by the pope, but the English barons forced him to sign the document. The signing was a defeat for central papal power. As aristocrats writing for aristocrats, the barons had no interest in the rights of the common people. But the Magna Carta later became the basis for English constitutional law, in which such rights as trial by jury and legislative taxation were established.

In 1215, English barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta as an effort to curb the Church’s power. The document later became the basis for English constitutional law. 

The Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453): The arrow is mightier than the armor. What might be called the first national war was waged by England against France. Fought on the Continent, the Hundred Years’ War was based on dubious claims to the throne of France by two English kings—Edward III (reigned 1327–1377) and Henry V (reigned 1413–1422).

This long war was militarily unsuccessful for the English. But it was an important factor in the gradual development of a British national consciousness. After the war, the English were no longer best represented by the knight in shining armor, an import from the Continent anyway. Instead, they were more accurately represented by the green-clad yeoman (small landowner) with his longbow. These English yeomen had formed the nucleus of the English armies in France. Their yard-long arrows could fly over castle walls and pierce the armor of knights. These small landowners now became a dominant force in the new society that grew out of the ruins of feudalism. The old ideals of chivalry lived on only in stories, such as the King Arthur tales retold by Sir Thomas Malory.

The English lost the Hundred Years’ War with France, but by the war’s end the yeomen (small landowners) who had formed the nucleus of the English armies had replaced the knights in armor. With this emergence of the yeoman class, modern, democratic England was born. 

The Black Death. The Black Death, or bubonic plague, which struck England in 1348–1349, delivered another blow to feudalism. Highly contagious and spread by fleas from infected rats, the disease reduced the nation’s population by a third—causing a labor shortage and inevitably giving the lower classes more leverage than ever before against their overlords. One long-term result was the serfs’ freedom, which knocked out feudalism’s last support. By the time King Henry VII’s 1486 marriage reconciled the warring Houses of York and Lancaster, the Middle Ages were ending in England. Henry, a strong king, began the Tudor line that would lead to Elizabeth I. England’s Renaissance was about to begin.

The Black Death caused a labor shortage, leading to the serfs’ freedom and to the end of feudalism. 

Quickwrite 

Loyalty lay at the heart of the feudal system. The landowners extracted loyalty from their serfs, the lords expected loyalty from their knights, and the king demanded loyalty from everyone. Has loyalty remained as important in today’s society? To whom, or to what, are you loyal, and why? Your answer might include institutions, like school or church, but does it also include ideas? Whom do you expect to be loyal to you, and in what ways? Jot down your thoughts on the issue to discuss with others in the class.

Time Line
The Middle Ages, 1066–1485 

Literary Events  Cultural/Historical Events 
1066

1099
 King Edward the Confessor dies without heir, 1066Duke of Normandy invades England, 1066

Domesday Book, a record of all land ownership in England, first compiled, 1086

Crusades begin, to free Jerusalem from Turkish control, 1095

French heroic poem, Song of Roland, written, c. 1100Death of Omar Khayyám, Persian poet and astronomer, 1131  1100

1149
Knights Templar, a religious order whose mission was to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land, founded, c. 1119
In Spain, first mass production of paper, c. 1150In France, Chrétien de Troyes writes Lancelot, c. 1170s  1150

1199
Construction begins on Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, 1163Thomas à Becket murdered, 1170

Henry II invades Ireland, beginning nearly eight hundred years of British domination, 1171

Minamoto Yoritomo becomes first shogun (military ruler) of Japan, 1192

Beginnings of German epic poem, the Nibelungenlied, c. 1200Persian poet Saadi born, 1213

Marie de France, first known European woman to write narrative poetry, dies, c. 1216

 1200

1249
Mongol leader Genghis Khan invades China, 1211English barons force King John to sign the Magna Carta, 1215

Pope Gregory IX begins the Inquisition, c. 1232

Thomas Aquinas writes Summa Theologica, 1266–1273  1250

1299
First commoners allowed in British Parliament, c. 1250Crusades end, 1270

Venetian traveler Marco Polo visits court of Kublai Khan in China, 1275

Edward I invades Scotland and declares himself king, 1296

Dante Alighieri begins writing the Divine Comedy, c. 1307Development of Japanese Nōh plays, 1300s

Petrarch crowned poet laureate in Italy, 1341

Julian of Norwich, one of the first English women of letters, born, c. 1342

Geoffrey Chaucer born, c. 1343

Boccaccio writes the Decameron, 1349–1353

 1300

1349
Zimbabwe emerges as major trading empire, 1300sAztecs begin to establish empire in Mexico, 1325

Hundred Years’ War between England and France begins, 1337

Black Death strikes England, 1348

Margery Kempe, author of first autobiography in English, born, c. 1373 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight written, c. 1375

Legendary hero Robin Hood appears in Piers Plowman, c. 1378

Entire Bible translated into English for first time by followers of John Wycliffe, 1380

Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales, c. 1387

 1350

1399
 English language used to open Parliament, 1362Ming dynasty begins 300-year rule of China, 1368

Peasants’ Revolt in England, 1381

King Richard II deposed, 1399

Chaucer dies, 1400In France, Christine de Pisan writes famous allegory, Book of the City of Ladies, 1405

First book printed with movable type by Gutenberg, 1455

William Caxton prints first book in English, c. 1475

Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur first printed by Caxton, 1485

 1400

1485
Benin Kingdom in West Africa flourishes, 1400sIn France, Joan of Arc burned at the stake by the English, 1431

Inca Empire established in Peru, c. 1438

Italian inventor and artist Leonardo da Vinci born, 1452

War between the Houses of York and Lancaster (also called the Wars of the Roses), 1455–1485

Birth of Nicolaus Copernicus, European astronomer, 1473

Martin Luther born in Germany, 1483

First Tudor king, Henry VII, is crowned, 1485

A Closer Look
A Terrible Worm in an Iron Cocoon 

If we hear the term “medieval period,” we inevitably think of knights and their magnificent suits of armor. During the early Middle Ages, armor consisted of a helmet, a shield, and a relatively flexible mail shirt, or hauberk, made of countless riveted or welded iron rings. With the crossbow, however, came the need for more protection, so the knight was forced to compromise flexibility and mobility for self-defense.

Held together by rivets, leather straps, hinges, turning pins, buckles, and pegs, a suit of armor replaced mail as the warrior’s chief protection. Knights wore a heavily padded undergarment of leather and a mail shirt under the armor, in addition to plate arm, leg, and foot pieces. Mail covered the neck, elbows, and other joints, and gauntlets constructed of linked plates covered the hands. Some suits of armor weighed 120 pounds and contained 200 customfitted iron plates. The knight also carried a variety of weapons: lance, dagger, sword, battle-ax, and club-headed mace.

The threat of death in battle was bad enough, but the armor itself could also be fatal—causing death from suffocation, heart failure, even drowning. Battle during hot weather was particularly difficult. Since small slits in the helmet allowed only a limited line of vision and little ventilation, heatstroke—often deadly for the knight—was common. One anonymous poem describes the armored knight as “a terrible worm in an iron cocoon.”

Only aristocratic knights could afford the huge cost of armor, a war horse, packhorses, a mount to ride when not in battle, and servants. Because of the armor’s weight and the complex fittings required to piece it together, a knight couldn’t dress himself for battle. In fact, battles were usually scheduled to allow the warring knights time to be dressed. Servants stood by during battle in case the knight was unhorsed. An armored knight on his back was like an upside-down turtle trying to get on its feet. In this position, the knight was vulnerable to his adversary. If he fell into a shallow body of water, he could drown.

During the fifteenth century, the knight and his horse were considered invulnerable. But this role changed dramatically when the longbow and later the musket ball came into warfare. When his armor could no longer protect him in battle, the knight in shining armor became more of a courtier than a combatant. In the last years of their existence, knights participated in exhibitions rather than in warfare.

A Closer Look
Fleas, Money, and Gunpowder: The End of an Era 

The legendary pageantry, the codes of chivalry, the heroic quests undertaken by valiant knights in honor of fair ladies—these images come to mind at the mention of the Middle Ages. But what happened? Why did this period come to an end? Besides the plague’s devastating effects, the development of a monetary system and the introduction of gunpowder contributed to changes in medieval England.

Before the eleventh century, few coins existed in England and western Europe. The English upper classes used gold and silver valued by weight, and foreign coins were usually melted down and transformed into ingots. Feudal lords made their own coins for use only on their property, and serfs used a barter system for purchases within the community. But the Crusades brought an economic change, for crusaders needed money that would be accepted in other lands. Silver was heavy, but gold coins were light and already in use throughout trade routes. The use of gold coins improved the peasants’ buying and selling power; instead of the barter system, they were now able to earn gold in exchange for their labor or goods. The minting of coins was essential in the revival of England’s economy.

Chivalric codes governed hand-to-hand combat during much of the Middle Ages. But the use of guns and gunpowder (and strategic military planning) changed all that. Discovered by the Chinese, gunpowder was introduced into English warfare around 1325. By 1346, warfare in the Western world had changed irreversibly. In the landmark battle of Crécy, the French outnumbered the English. The English, aided by the longbow and by explosives, massacred their opponents. Over the next two hundred years, the cannon made the castle—previously impregnable—open to attack.

The rules of war and class had changed. Chivalry was at an end, and feudal obligation became a thing of the past. As a result, a free and prosperous middle class developed, revolutionizing the country’s social and economic systems.

Celtic Myths 10B

Hi 10B girls!

I need you to post here your name and the name of the Celtic myth you have chosen to research and summarize.

Just like this:

Student: JUAN PABLO VANEGAS

Myth: The Race of Partholon (this myth can be used by any of you)

The link below can be of help though not the only source of information.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/cml/index.htm

REMEMNBER YOU NEED TO LOOK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT A MYTH AND WRITE A PARAGRAPH. THIS PARAGRAPH HAS TO BE HANDED OUT IN A PIECE OF PAPER AND BE HABNDWRITTEN.

ANGLO SAXONS SUMMARY 10B

Grade 10B ladies,

Here’s the space to write the summary sentence of AngloSaxons text.

Write your name and your partner’s and the summary sentences you produced in class.

They go in this order

Lau Corredor

Ma Paula

Delly

Ana

Dani O

Ale Guz

Remember they are responsible for the posting, but all the members of the team must appear in the comment. Watch grammar, punctuation and mechanics.

You must download and print them for you to file in your folders.