Twentieth Century Test Preparation

Dear 11A,

 

Here’s what you have to do for the test on THURSDAY APRIL 28, 2016

 

Similarly as we did in class, you are going to be assigned a topic (events or facts) from the article about 20th century and you will have to:

 

  1. Tell the immediate effects the event or fact had in history.
  2. Explain the effects the event or fact had in late 20th century and early 21st
  3. Discuss other issues (a least one), which can be told about the event or fact.

 

YOUR PARTICIPATION IN THE BLOG GRANTS YOU 20 POINTS OF THE TEST GRADE.

 

Obviously, you have to research to enrich your topic, but you have to be brief; no more than 250 words. COPYING AND PASTING IS PENALIZED; YOU WILL AUTOMATICALLY LOSE YOUR TWENTY POINTS.

 

Remember! You benefit others and get benefitted by others. If you miss this assignment, you don’t only lose your 20 points, you might make someone else fail.

Student Topic
ALVARADO PERDOMO, LAURA CAROLINA U.S. enters WWI
ARENAS BUSTOS, ISABELLA  South Africa gets independence from Britain
BORDA PEÑA, MARIA JOSE Nigeria wins independence from England.
GALEANO HOYOS, MARÍA FERNANDA Darwin’s Origin of Species
GÓMEZ CUBILLOS, JULIANA Berlin Wall dismantled
GOMEZ SALGADO, CAMILA Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
LASSO MUÑOZ, LAURA LORENA Spread of English around the world.
LÓPEZ PÉREZ, MARIA PAULA Marx’s Das Kapital
MEDINA PARDO, MANUELA The League of Nations.
MENDOZA DÍAZ, MARÍA ALEJANDRA Picasso, John Millington Synge, Igor Stravinsky (book page 915)
NEMPEQUE BENITEZ, NATALIA WWII
OCHOA CALDERÓN, CAROLINA Royal tradition and scandal (book pages 914-915)
ORTIZ GÓMEZ, CAROLINA Soviet Union is dissolved.
PARDO SALAZAR, VALENTINA Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams
PEREA SILVA, VALENTINA Fascism.
RODRÍGUEZ UCRÓS, ANGELA MARÍA Dropping of atomic bomb in Hiroshima.
ROJAS POLO, LAURA MARIA Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence (book page 916)
SERRANO GUARÍN, MARÍA PAULA End of conflict in Northern Ireland.
VELOSA ZAMBRANO, VALENTINA Joseph Stalin takes power
VILLARREAL HERNANDEZ, VALENTINA State of Israel created
ZAFRA ZAMBRANO, MARIA FERNANDA ENIAC is developed.
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53 Comments

  1. Isabella Arenas B

     /  April 26, 2016

    South Africa gets independence from Britain:

    1. Tell the immediate effects the event or fact had in history:
    One of the most significant effects it had in history was the apartheid, which was a period known because of the discrimination to people with black skin. In South Africa was evident this segregation because with the colonization of Great Britain, white, British people were seen and treated in a better way than natives, which were mainly black. There were laws creates, that established that white people deserved to be separated and had more rights than the others. This remained even after the independence of the colony.
    2. Explain the effects the event or fact had in late 20th century and early 21st :
    As the apartheid was taken as a form of living and ruling in South Africa after the independence, in later years, when people opened their eyes and started seeing this form of segregation as an inhuman way of treating people, South Africa stopped being part of the Commonwealth, a group of countries which supported each other with political and economical issues.
    3. Discuss other issues (a least one), which can be told about the event or fact:
    Countries started repudiating South Africa because of the form of government and rules they established after its independence of Great Britain, apartheid was starting to be seen as a very bad form of ruling by the whole world, so South Africa broke diplomatic and commercial relations with many countries and was forbidden its participation in the Olympic Games and worldwide championships.

    Reply
    • Thank you Isa.

      Very concise and clear. However, the last part where you mention that South Africa was forbidden from the Olympics, is it still true? I think you must clarify that one point!

      Reply
      • Isabella Arenas

         /  May 5, 2016

        South Africa was forbidden from the Olympics from 1964 to 1988 because of the sporting boycott this country suffered for the apartheid era.

        Reply
  2. Maria Paula Serrano

     /  April 26, 2016

    The conflict in Northern Ireland is commonly known as The Troubles. It was a civil war that lasted 30 years (1969-1998) between the Republicans (Catholics) and the Unionists (Protestants). The Republicans wanted Northern Ireland to gain independence from the UK, while the Unionists wanted to remain under the British power. The vast majority of the people in Northern Ireland were Protestants, including the police force (93% protestant), so Republicans were just a minority that conformed a group, the IRA (Irish Revolutionary Army), considered terrorist by most of the world. The conflict ended in 1998 with the Good Friday Agreement, which stated that Northern Ireland would only become independent when the people voted for it, and conformed a parliament that included both Protestant and Catholic leaders.

    Reply
    • Thank you very much Maria Paula. However, you dedicated most of your comment to telling what the topic is or was. You need to add consequences or effects pos the Good Friday agreement. You can put together a. and b. of the instructions as the event occurred in the late twentieth century. Include something about early 21st and other issues. For example, how have protestants received the agreement? Are catholics happy with the agreement and their actual conditions? How is this conflict connected to Spain’s ETA?

      Reply
      • Maria Paula Serrano

         /  April 27, 2016

        One of the most important effects the Good Friday Agreement had in hitsory was the settling of a precedent for other peace treaties around the world, especially in Africa. It is even taken under consideration for the peace porcess that’s taking place today in Colombia. However, The Troubles left big scars in northern ireland society, and even today Catholics and Protestants prefer to live apart from one another, eventhough the government has tried to mix this polarized society through laws and programs. One of the most important achievements of this agreement was to transform a terrorist group (the IRA) and give it political means to fight for their principles, without the use of violence. Likewise, the ETA in Spain is considered today a terrorist group motivated by the same reasons as the IRA: independence and autonomy, in this case, for the Greater Basque Country. Until today, the ETA continues to use violence, and hasn’t gone succesfully through an agreement.

        Reply
  3. Laura Rojas

     /  April 26, 2016

    Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence
    Writing during de twentieth century was turned upside down by the novelists that lived at that time. All of them innovated what the novel was in different ways, challenging and breaking the schemes that were previously stablished. Writers, as Joseph Conrad, expressed their vision about future, describing it as a dark and messed up horizon, because one of their main characteristics was that they used their novels as a device to express what they saw was going on around them, stating their own opinion about it; as for example D.H. Lawrence that criticized society and the British system through his writings. What was also controversial were the topics that were treated; Lawrence wrote about sexuality and about relations between sexes in an open way, which was not well accepted at that time and that was also the reason for which some of his writings were banned. Finally Virginia Wolf brought another important change in the novel, which was the detailed introspection into the human’s moods and impressions and how they changed, and also that she rejected chronological order of the events that were developed in a novel.

    Reply
    • Thank you Laura. However, it is important to tell late 20th century or perhaps 21st century effects. How about censorship of books in the 60’s? Why not including something about Lady Chatterley’s publication in 1960 and the trial about it? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D._H._Lawrence#Exile

      What effect have such trials had on censorship in modern literature and other media!

      Reply
      • Laura Rojas

         /  April 26, 2016

        One of the late 20th century effects was the censorship of books with the “Obscene Publications Act” in 1959. This was born in the trial of D.H. Lawrence for his novel “Lady Chatterley’s lover” which contained explicit topics about sexuality and was considered as taboo at that time. This led to the rise of estrict laws about censorship and certain specifications refering to the kind of content a publication should follow.
        These regulations have remained until our present days and are still considered as real laws, the difference is that nowadays they not only refer to written publications, but also they are applied to films, songs, internet, etc.

        Reply
  4. Manuela

     /  April 26, 2016

    The League of Nations
    It was created just after the First World War by Woodrow Wilson, it was an international organization that controlled and provided congregations for resolving international issues and preventing war. After it was created in Europe, USA never agreed to join it and The URSS and Germany never agreed either because they were not included in it. These lead to the fact that when they actually recover their strength and power, they didn’t have to follow it, so they could start new conflicts to recover territories. It had positive effects, the League could intervened in many problems between nations and prevent they get worse. In other cases they failed during the forums and conflicts continued. They had successes and failures as you can see, some countries that supported them and some others that didn’t. It also made that during conflicts, nations took different sides; in the conflict between Turkey and Greece of 1920, for example, Britain and France took opposite sides. The league intervened in many other conflicts like the Chaco War, where it failed to prevent the war, the Spanish civil war, Abyssia invasion, and others.

    Reply
  5. Ángela Maria Rodriguez

     /  April 26, 2016

    The atomic bomb in Hiroshima was dropped in 1945, it was sent by the authorities of the United States.

    1. The immediate effects this event had was that the USA’S president Harry S. Truman told Japan to surrender, but they didn’t, until the bombing of Nagasaki. When they finally surrended because of the political pressure, World War II ended.
    2. The effects it had in the 20th and 21th centuries are: a) The main and obvious effect is that since the attack occurred , United States doesn’t have the best of the political and economical relationship with Japan. b) The second great effect is that during this years, experts have discovered new health problems in the people that lived or live there, or near the city attacked.
    3. Another issue this event caused is the One of radioactivity and the mortal consequences. Radioactive elements brang health problems immediately and years later. Japanese people have experimented the increase in cancer cases. Due to the destruction of most of the hospitals, people couldn’t be helped and years after they continued having problems with their health. Another issue radioactivity caused where the mutations in plants and animals, which make life more difficult.

    Reply
    • Very good Angelita! The USA and Japan have actually very good relationships nowadays and it has been so for at least more than 50 years. There are Japanese cars everywhere in the USA (Toyota, Suzuki, Daihatsu and others), for example.
      However, I think you could include other effects in mid and late 20th century as the development of nuclear weapons and the nuclear arms race. What about 21st century effects? Do we still have nuclear weapons?

      PLEASE PAY ATTENTION TO LANGUAGE USE!

      1. The immediate effects this event had was that the USA’S president Harry S. Truman told Japan to surrender, but they didn’t, until the bombing of Nagasaki. When they finally SURRENDERED because of the political pressure, World War II ended.
      2. The effects it had in the 20th and 21ST centuries are: a) The main and obvious effect is that since the attack occurred , United States doesn’t have the best of the political and economical relationship with Japan. b) The second great effect is that during THESE years, experts have discovered new health problems in the people that lived or live there, or near the city attacked.
      3. Another issue this event caused is the One of radioactivity and ITS mortal consequences. Radioactive elements BROUGHT health problems immediately and years later. Japanese people have experimented the increase in cancer cases. Due to the destruction of most of the hospitals, people couldn’t be helped and years after they continued having problems with their health. Another issue radioactivity caused WERE the mutations in plants and animals, which make life more difficult.

      Reply
  6. Maria Alejandra Mendoza

     /  April 26, 2016

    Picasso, John Millington Synge, Igor Stravinsky
    1. Tell the immediate effects the event or fact had in history: It involved a transformation in all the ways of art, especially on Europe. Picasso with his cubist painting, Millington with new and revolutionary ideas in Theater and Stravinsky with his primitive and sexual techniques in ballet. All of them standed out in different areas and showed people other ways of seeing life and art.
    2. Explain the effects the event or fact had in late 20th century and early 21st : All of the works they made challenged the traditional values of beauty and order that society thought were correct. They opened new avenues of expression different from the forms of art a decade before the Great War.
    3. Discuss other issues (a least one), which can be told about the event or fact: This type of art exposed new, erotic, revolutionary and innovative ideas before the war, but later, with all the British soldiers that died, people developed a cynical attitude towards life, different from the one that has already been mentioned.

    Reply
  7. Natalia Nempeque

     /  April 26, 2016

    WWII
    1. Immediate effects in history: Unfortunately, millions of people were homeless or died during this conflict, including the 6 million Jews that were killed in the Holocaust. England and France had to dismantle their colonial empires, as their economy collapsed, so they lost power. This allowed the US to win power and be known as the new world leader (Specially thanks to the Marshall Plan).
    2. Effects in late 20th century and early 21st: The development of the atomic bomb during the war led to a great scientific and technological progress. Its use caused transformation in nature, and physical and psychological problems for people. This marked the start of the nuclear power industry. There were also important progress in computers, radars and electronics. In 1945, the United Nations was created to prevent the reoccurrence of conflicts similar to the ones that happened. And in 1944, the International Monetary Fund was created for the same reason (avoid mistakes that lead to the Great Depression)
    3. Other issues: The two principal groups that were involved in the conflict were: Germany, Italy and Japan (the Axis power), and France, Great Britain and US (the Allies). This war is known as the continuation of the WWI, but with worst effects.

    Reply
    • Good work Natis.

      I think in other issues you could include that after the war, the axis and the allies were disolved and two other opposite powers arose. Which ones? What did these two side lead to?

      Reply
      • Natalia Nempeque

         /  May 5, 2016

        3. Other issues: The two principal groups that were involved in the conflict were: Germany, Italy and Japan (the Axis power), and France, Great Britain and US (the Allies). This war is known as the continuation of the WWI, but with worst effects. After the war other two powers emerged: Communism (supported by URSS) and Capitalism (supported by US), and they lead to the Cold War that was characterized by the postwar tension.

        Reply
  8. Maria P Lopez

     /  April 26, 2016

    Immediate effects:
    Marx´s Das capital, along with his other social and political ideas, had a great impact among the society of the time because he established a new way of seeing the distribution of wealth, and he impulse the working class to claim for their right to own property. He created the perfect scenery for people to question about capitalism and private dominance of investment.
    Effects in late 20th century and early 21th:
    As it is evident, communism is one of the greatest effects that Karl Marx had in our society. This social and political system induced the cold war, and even though nowadays communism has failed, there are still some guerrillas or movements all over the world that defend these ideals. Another long term effect could be the phenomenon of class struggle that is really common in countries such as China, Indonesia, Mexico and South Africa among others. In the other hand, not just his ideas influenced our life, but also his way of theorizing gave present thinkers a tip to base their theories on concrete aspects of our daily life.
    Other issues:
    Karl Marx is one of the most hated thinkers in history because of his theory in which rich people weren’t supposed to be rich anymore. Also his ideas weren’t organized until another Russian thinker perfected them; Lenin. As well Marx wasn’t just a philosopher but a doctor in philosophy, and as the philosophers of the classical period he had a great sensibility for arts. Finally, it is known that communism embodies an utopist society in which everybody has shelter and food, so in present days we can’t talk about communism as a fact but we do talk about socialism that is the path into that ideal system.

    Reply
  9. Maria Fernanda

     /  April 26, 2016

    1. The EINAC was the first electronic general purpose computer. It was designed at the University of Pennsylvania and financed by the United States Army. It was first released in 1943 and caused a great impact amongst scholars and industrialist for the different characteristics it presented. Said features included the capacity to solve different mathematical problems and store their answers in order to trigger a chained –operation solving process.
    2. Although its main purpose had been to run a calculation for the military’s artillery firing tables (1) the EINAC arose the interest of John von Neumann; he was a mathematician working on the development of the Hydrogen Bomb. The EINAC was used to run data regarding the specific computation for the working of the Hydrogen Bomb. This was one of the main effects it had in late XX th century. The Hydrogen bomb being a thermonuclear-reaction generated device is closely linked to the Atomic Bomb; they both work under the same principles of nuclear fission and fusion. The latter was developed and used in its full capacity in 1945 on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    3. If we consider the aforementioned events, the development of the EINAC was indirectly related to the creation of international treaties regarding the development and harboring of nuclear weapons around the world. The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty was opened for signature in 1968 and extended in 1995. This is one of the most pressing issues relating international security and armament nowadays.
    1.Artilery firing tables: a table or chart giving data needed for firing a gun accurately on a target under standard conditions, and also thecorrectio

    Reply
    • Good work Ma. Fernanda,

      However, in B you need to tell what effect ENIAC had in LATE 20th and early 21st centuries. I think it is more than obvious, not only for warfare.

      Reply
  10. Laura Carolina Alvarado Perdomo

     /  April 26, 2016

    U.S entry to WWI
    1. After US enter to the WWI, it happens the First U.S. convoy to protect shipping in Europe, this caused that many ships, supplies, and men represent a lost to German submarines and affected the ware. Also US made its firsts combat involvements were nearly a million British soldiers died and people in Great Britain developed cynical attitudes toward the government.
    2. In the late 20th century and in the early 21st is still reflected the right to vote that women finally got when they were fighting and supporting the war to preserve democracy. Also this war led to a big economic depression called the 29th crash, causing lots of problems in the population and affecting every world economy that depends or was related with US economy, whose effects are seen nowadays in private or public economies in different places of the world.

    3. Another important issue about this event was when Germany formally surrendered on 1918, and all nations agreed to stop fighting giving place to the Treaty of Versailles, so it was signed in 1919 and the Allied Powers of the U.S., became victorious.

    Reply
    • Thank you Laura!

      A few corrections and comments.

      1. After US enter to the WWI, it happens the First U.S. convoy to protect shipping in Europe, What does this mean? Now, if you want to start a new idea you either use a semi colon, a connector or a period.

      this caused that many ships, supplies, and men represent represented? a lost loss? to German submarines and affected the ware WAR?. Also US made its firsts combat involvements were where nearly a million British soldiers died and people in Great Britain developed cynical attitudes toward the

      How is the presence of US troops a loss to German submarines? Why were people in Britain cynical? Were the American fighting the British? It is not clear what you are saying.

      2. In the late 20th century and in the early 21st the right to vote that women finally got when they were fighting and supporting the war to preserve democracy is still reflected.

      Also this war led to a big economic depression called the 29th crash [so there was a 28th, a 27th a 26th and so on?], causing lots of problems in the population and affecting every world economy that depends or was related TO US economy, whose effects are seen nowadays in private or public economies in different places of the world.

      Correct the part of the Crash of the 29.

      3. Another important issue about this event was when Germany formally surrendered on 1918, and all nations agreed to stop fighting giving place to the Treaty of Versailles, WHICH was signed in 1919 and the Allied Powers of the U.S., became victorious.

      This one is much better.

      CORRECT EVERYTHING AND COMMENT AGAIN.

      Reply
      • Laura Carolina Alvarado Perdomo

         /  April 27, 2016

        U.S enter the WWI
        1. After US enter the WWI; a system of convoys was established by the British for protecting their shipping from the German submarines and navy army. These convoys were mainly directed for keeping safe supplies, ships and men coming from US to Britain. Also US troops went across the Atlantic, and established in Britain and France; their first combat involvements left nearly a million British soldiers death and finished with some German prisoners of war.
        2. In the late 20th century and in the early 21st is still reflected the right to vote that women finally got when they were fighting and supporting the war to preserve democracy. Also this war led to a big economic depression called the Crash of the 29, causing lots of problems in the population and affecting every world economy that depends or was related with US economy, whose effects are seen nowadays in private or public economies in different places of the world.
        3. Another important issue about this event was when Germany formally surrendered on 1918, and all nations agreed to stop fighting giving place to the Treaty of Versailles, so it was signed in 1919 and the Allied Powers of the U.S., became victorious.

        Reply
  11. María Fernanda Galeano Hoyos

     /  April 26, 2016

    Charles Darwin influenced the scientific world, revolutionizing all ideas at that moment but especially his book “The Theory of the human” caused great controversy in the religious community. At that moment Darwin’s ideas made that all the Scientifics and the religious investigated about his theory, this created a big wave of new discoveries, theories and inventions that helped not only to support Darwin’s theory but also generated new theories about our evolution and the adaptations that the species made to themselves
    Today the basic ideas of Darwin are considered correct, because they explain the evolution correctly, but still nowadays there are some debates between the religious and scientific ideas. But the Creationism helped the Darwin theory and is more adapted at the daily modern life.

    Reply
    • Good work Maria Fernanda! Just include other issues, for example:

      How did Darwin’s ideas influence people to believe that some were superiors than others?

      Reply
  12. Valentina Pardo

     /  April 26, 2016

    Freud’s “The interpretation of dreams”
    a) Immediate effects:
    – Different way of thinking about human unconscious source to make decisions
    -Exposure of “dreams” as a relevant topic in people’s everyday lives
    -Different view of human capacity to reason accurately through senses or rational capacities
    -Development of studies about human behaviour
    b)Influence on 20th and 21st century:
    -Influence on thinkers regarding psychoanalysis
    -Influenced literary movements (surrealism) and style
    -Influenced educational programs and studies so that students would not only exercise their minds with rational abilities (math, physics, etc) but with with abstract activities to train their subconscious for better performance
    c) Issues:
    -Criticism about homogeneous sample groups that do not permit better study on the topic
    -Conter arguments about poor or weak methods of analysis
    -Lack of theoretical rigor
    -Freud’s psychoanalysis relies too much on ambiguities for its data (dreams and no empirical knowledge)

    Reply
  13. Juliana Gomez

     /  April 26, 2016

    Berlin Wall Dismantled

    1. In the year 1961 the communist governement of the German Democratic Republic began to build a wall which they called an “antifacist bulkwall” between east and west Berlin. The purpose of this wall was to keep western facists from entering east Germany. The wall was held up until the year 1989. This period of time was called worldwidely as the cold war because it was when Capitalist Nations (USA, France and England) began to have a tense relationship with Communist Nations (URSS) which was caused by the difference in the ideals they had.
    2. The effects of the Berlin wall dismantled were first of all, it was the end of the cold war; it was also the end of the URSS to turn into what we call nowaday Rusia. Another effect of this event was that the world started to live and adopt two new forms of econimics and politics: capitalism and communism. Most nations decided to adopt capitalism as their form of economy and politic power.
    3. This event was very important in history because it showed the “maturity” of a world that has suffered two world wars in which many cities were distroyed and many people were killed, however it was also a period of time in which many powerful countries such as the United States, China, England, France and Rusia started to build and improve new types of weaponry essentialy mass destructive weapons. This included radioactive energy, biologic weapons and atomic bombs. With this also came a lot of treatments that regulated the use of this type of weapons just us the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which existed since 1968 but after the cold war was signed by a lot more countries and by 2015 190 stated were recognized as part pf the treaty. The fall of the Berlin wall was also the start of globalization around the world. It brought a lot of advances in communications, economic growth for the world and a sistem of global connections that make it easy for countries to interact with each other in the discussion and solution of global issues.

    Reply
    • Good work Juliana,

      A few comments though.

      In 1 you were supposed to tell what immediate events had occurred, but since this happened in the late 20th century, your giving us a context is alright.

      Please correct the mistakes underline and comment again!

      The effects of the Berlin wall dismantled were first of all, it was the end of the cold war; it was also the end of the URSS to turn into what we call nowaday Rusia. Another effect of this event was that the world started to live and adopt two new forms of econimics and politics: capitalism and communism. Most nations decided to adopt capitalism as their form of economy and politic power.

      3. This event was very important in history because it showed the “maturity” of a world that has suffered two world wars in which many cities were distroyed and many people were killed, however it was also a period of time in which many powerful countries such as the United States, China, England, France and Rusia started to build and improve new types of weaponry essentialy mass destructive weapons. This included radioactive energy, biologic weapons and atomic bombs. With this also came a lot of treatments that regulated the use of this type of weapons just us the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which existed since 1968 but after the cold war was signed by a lot more countries and by 2015 190 stated were recognized as part pf the treaty. The fall of the Berlin wall was also the start of globalization around the world. It brought a lot of advances in communications, economic growth for the world and a sistem of global connections that make it easy for countries to interact with each other in the discussion and solution of global issues.

      Reply
      • Juliana Gómez

         /  May 5, 2016

        The effects of the Berlin wall dismantled were first of all, it was the end of the cold war; it was also the end of the URSS to turn into what we nowadays we call Rusia. Another effect of this event was that the world started to live and adopt two new forms of econimics and politics: capitalism and communism. Most nations decided to adopt capitalism as their form of economy and political power.

        3. This event was very important in history because it showed the “maturity” of a world that has suffered two world wars in which many cities were destroyed and many people were killed, however it was also a period of time in which many powerful countries such as the United States, China, England, France and Rusia started to build and improve new types of weaponry essentialy mass destructive weapons. This included radioactive energy, biologic weapons and atomic bombs. With this also came a lot of treaties that regulated the use of this type of weapons just as the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which existed since 1968 but after the cold war was signed by a lot more countries and by 2015 190 stated were recognized as part pf the treaty. The fall of the Berlin wall was also the start of globalization around the world. It brought a lot of advances in communications, economic growth for the world and a sistem of global connections that make it easy for countries to interact with each other in the discussion and solution of global issues.

        Reply
  14. Carolina Ortiz

     /  April 26, 2016

    SOVIET UNION IS DISSOLVED.
    1. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR , was established in 1922 with the Bolsheviks rebellion and the overthrew of the Tsar during the Russian Empire, it was based on Marxism socialism. It was set as a union of multiple Eurasian nations, governed by the Communist party, also soviet industry was owned and managed by the state, agricultural land was subdivided into state farms, and collective farms.
    2. The fall of the Soviet Union took place in 1991,when the commonwealth of independent states was established. It fell mostly because there were many of radical reforms that its president Mikhail Gorbachev had set during six years in his leadership. The communist governments were collapsing because they were loosing authority on their territory. Economy shrank in 1990, making the situation a lot more difficult for all the nations involved, and finally a pact that accepted the reintegration of Germany and the arms reductions with the United States were signed.
    3. The immediate effects were:
    The triumph of democracy over totalitarism
    The evidence of superiority of capitalism over socialism
    The end of the cold war
    The US became the stole superpower and the creation of a unipolar world
    Independence for ex-soviet republics as the Baltic states, Ukraine an d the central Asian republics such as Kazakhstan
    The collapse of the Russian Economy, mass poverty
    The unification of Germany
    Disintegration of Yugoslavia and the resultant Balkan wars

    4. For the 21th century we can see how now it has been dominated by the rise of globalization, enabled by union of the world through the internet, social media, and communication. Also there has been a progress on ideologies, as the growth of postmodernism and cultural relativism
    The United States has become by far the most powerful country, but there are also some countries that have raised such as China.
    The economy has been balanced by blocs such as Europe as the the European Union, and finally the environmentalism which has become a mainstream concern in the post Cold war era.
    5. Other issues:
    Weapons races: both sides tried to out produce the other with nuclear, bacteriological and conventional weapons, also the arm race was to see what side could have more submarines, air planes, armies, and military assistance.
    Espionage: all sides used spies, and other means to gather intel info on the other satellites, radio code breaking, spies, computers, spy ships and spy planes

    Reply
    • Very good Carolina!

      A few comments though.

      In 4, how does the dissolution of the Soviet Union influence these facts in the 21st century? Please explain this part.

      In 5, are these facts you mention effects of the dissolution?

      Reply
      • Carolina Ortiz

         /  May 5, 2016

        First for the first correction those are the effects due to the explanation I gave before
        and for the second correction those are the other issues you asked for in the instructions.

        Reply
  15. Laura Lasso

     /  April 26, 2016

    Spread of English around the world.
    1. It is hard to tell the immediate effects that the spread of English had, since it is a process of many years rather than a concrete fact. At the beginning of the early 20 century England was a political power this caused that the colonies they had started using English as their first language. After WWII USA became a world power, it was well known for its innovation in technology, since the official language of the USA is English its technology was developed in English making it the official language of technology.
    2. 2. The consequences that this had in the 20 the century and early 21th century were that thanks to the establishment of England and USA as political and economic world powers English became the most important language. In the late 20 centuries thanks to globalization it became the official language of the world. Thanks to English literature, art, science, news, commerce etc. its global and anyone can reach it.
    3. English language is one of the most common in the world. Thanks to it countries how teach English as a second language have an advantage when it comes to their participation in the global network. It opens many doors for people of every country and keep us connected. The official language of the United Nation is English. This was stablishing after WWII.

    Reply
  16. Carolina Ochoa

     /  April 26, 2016

    Royal tradition and scandal
    In that time England was passing through very rough time, starting for the fater of Henry VIII wives. In that time all the population were very proud and gave a lot of importance to rituals and all back traditions they had, but all their lords appear to be anachroristics. When de 21th century starts, the House of Windsor started to rule all the kingdom based on its past, crown functions are carried out as before and ceremonial events for important things. The also suffered another incident, the Ancient Windsor Castle caught in fire and as a result Queen Elizabeth insituted some important reforms; the pay of income taxes and the publication of the annual spending on royal palaces. One important event was the accident that caused Princess Diana death, after the publication of this new people started to crtiticize because of their “coldness and formality” by telling out the facts. At the end monarchy vas abolished as a solution of an end of thousand years of tradition, eventhough it was preserved by it historical continuity, public imagination and unromatic age of pageantry and the need to escape.

    Reply
    • Carolina,

      You just paraphrased, not correctly in some cases, what is in the book. Please follow the instructions.

      Tell the immediate effects the event or fact had in history.
      Explain the effects the event or fact had in late 20th century and early 21st
      Discuss other issues (a least one), which can be told about the event or fact.

      Reply
  17. Camila Gomez

     /  April 26, 2016

    1. The immediate effect the assassination had was that automatically the first world war begun because when the serbs killed the archduke, the Austro-Hungarian empire decided to be against them and so the russian empire said that if any conflict started they would intervene for Serbia and so Great Britain and France; as a result of that they decided not to declare war to the serbians but then germany said that they would support completely the austro-hungarian empire in anything they do and finally the war started.

    2.  As i mention it before, this lead to the l world war so as you known all the effects that this had in the xx and XXI century are from the world war like the spread of the Austro Hungarian empire into the now known countries, the economic problems all europe had because of all the damages after the war, how Russia needed to went out of the fight because of their internal communist revolution, how USA started to be a superpower and the economic prestamist, and the way that the tension continued after then physic fight was over and all the things that it involved in the future like the ll ww.

    3.  As a “fun” fact known from the assassination is that once before everything happened, Otto van Bismark, a german leader, said that there would be a war that would include europe  entirely and that it will happen because of a silly thing and nobody ever notice what he predicted until after all the chaos the event lead to. Also, In the same day two different people tried to kill him, the first one with a bomb and he failed his attack and the other one who did it but with a gunshot.

    Reply
  18. María José Borda

     /  April 27, 2016

    Nigeria won independence in 1960 living behind all their years with slavery.

    A)The immediate effects this independence had in history were that people were now free, all population celebrated they weren’t property of rich ones, and that they were no more slaves. They finally gained their right about life. Nigeria won self government and all the rights they deserve because of their territory. Federal government won power in themes such as security,economy and policies.

    B)the effects Nigeria independence had in late 20th 21 centuries were that they were finally able to gain the power and self government they deserved. Even though they were no more slaves and they gained rights, Nigeria was a multicultural territory . Their society was divided in 3 main ethnic groups and each one represented their interests. Nigeria showed up with their full independence in 1960 in which they were under a constitution that benefits the 3 regions. They can be an example because they focused in one general goal called independence and learned how to live together.

    C) other issues about Nigeria independence is that still nowadays they have great and very important richness and diversity, ethnicities in nigeria include Yoruba,hausa, and Igbo.
    Nigeria is one of the historic centers of African unity that follows pan Africanism a common ideology followed by all african descents which was very important in the decades of South Africa decolonization, they fight against colonial forces and discrimination.

    Reply
    • Good try Ma José,

      I think in A you are kind of giving random information that show little research. “Rich people”? “Slaves”? What do you mean?

      “Federal government won power in themes such as security,economy and policies”. Countries don’t win these things, they GAIN them. This is besides too obvious; most countries that become independent gain all of them. How is their becoming independent specially important for them?

      I think you can tell about the 4 republics that existed and the effects of oil in that area, especially for other issues.

      Reply
      • Maria Jose Borda Peña

         /  April 27, 2016

        After the II world war people in Nigeria started to show their dissident about colonization, they got all together to abolish it. In 1946 territory was divided and consolidated into three federal states (East, West and North) each one with autonomy to govern their territory as they wish. This federal government achieved independence from England in 1960 and they were considered as a Commonwealth community. Each federal state had political parties who were their representations. All this created constant problems between them, these internal problems were the reason why Nigeria had 4 different republics, each one different but with the same problems such as the coups.
        1st Republic:
        They changed the way of government into a republic, they were still considered as commonwealth but it was a very violent republic because of ethnic rivalries.Civil wars and coups were unleashed. It was the first period of military rule.
        2nd republic:
        5 political parties fought for the power, but National Party of Nigeria was founded to make a new constitution ,but,once again elections were disturbed because of violence.
        3rd republic:
        Military dictatorship killed 9 liders of ogoni, this event made the separation of Nigeria with the Soviet Union and the expel from the commonwealth.
        4th republic
        Is here were the military rule finished, the emergence of democracy In Nigeria made people, the new president took a territory full of problems in economy, politics and culture.

        Before independence, a very good source of oil was discovered, they started selling big amounts of it, so their incomes started growing, making Nigeria a rich nation. Sudden and common changes in oil per barrel made Nigeria to be the sixth largest oil producer in the world, with oil revenues by $ 24 billion per year.
        Oil was the thing that helped Nigeria get out from the ” bad reality” they lived with ethincal problems and discriminations.

        Reply
  19. Valentina Velosa

     /  April 27, 2016

    Immediate effects it had in history
    Joseph Stalin was a Russian dictator who was known for being brutal; he took over the Communist state after the death of Lenin; he named his territory as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) the immediate effects it had are evident; right after he rose the USSR developed industry, sciences and nuclear technology; he forced the industrialization in order to catch up with the new superpowers that rose at the time he was in power; he dragged the country out of its dullness, most of the population lived in misery and many people died because of the lack of food the country was producing, it is believed that he was as cruel as Hitler, he sacrificed the lives of many for the progress of the URRS, in terms of army it was strengthen to the point it was one of the strongest in the world, he believed this was one of the most important things for a state. He believed that women where unappreciated and he believed that the traditional way of treating them was wrong introducing the equality of genders in the URRS through the second half of the 20th century. He also liberalized the social services indicating he believed in communism as the right way to manage the country.
    2. Effect in the late 20th century and early 21
    • The end of the WWII is placed in the second half of the 20th century, and the begging of a new war, supported by Stalin; He wanted to stablish communist governments throughout Easter Europe following the Marxist dream of having a world of communists; in 1949 he introduced the USSR into the nuclear era with the explosion of the first Russian nuclear bomb; He supported North Koreas dictator into invading South Korea leading to the Korean War and worsening the tension between the USA and the USSR; his influence marked both half’s of the 20th century and he 21st century as well, this is evidenced by the fact that Saddam Hussein ruler claimed that he saw Stalin as a role model that should be followed by today’s society .
    3. Fact to discuss
    In the 30 years Stalin ruled the Soviet Union suffered a lot, there were many forced displacements, incarcerations, labour camps, torture houses and purges, all featuring Stalin, he was a man that believed in old fashioned acts of torture and mass murder; normally this fact in overlooked because Hitler´s holocaust took place in the same period of time, Stalin was known for eliminating every person who represented a threat to his government, it is believed that the USSR had 52 to 56 million of murders, 20 f the linked to Stalin; he lived by the quote “No man –no problem” showing he had no regard for human life.

    Reply
    • Very good and complete! There are only a few spelling, punctuation and grammar mistakes I wonder why you always say your English is not good. I expect to see the same quality of English in the test.

      Reply
  20. Valentina Villarreal

     /  April 27, 2016

    State of Israel created

    1 / 1
    Joseph Stalin
    1. Immediate effects it had in history
    The creation of Israel was due to the fact that the Europeans were trying to give something back to the Jews after the holocaust and the tragedy the WWII brought on their society so as some sort of reward, they gave them a piece of land but they didn’t acknowledge the fact that the Palestinians were already occupying this territory which meant that from the moment they stepped in their land, they would be at war again; the immediate effects were that not only the Palestinians were unhappy with this, but also the Egyptians and Syrians who didn’t want them there; they saw it as a western form of surveillance by creating a new country into a territory that is almost completely occupied by Muslims.
    2. Effect in the late 20th century and early 21
    The effect it had in the late 20th century is still seen with the struggle this two nations have to go through every single day, a reality that has become normal to the rest of the world; the Israelis have invaded most of the Palestinian territory, and the cultural breach is still too big; the Jews claim Jerusalem as the promised land of God to Moises and the Muslims believe his is a place secreted for their religion so it still impacts our society since the problems between this two nations in still happening.
    3. Fact to discuss
    The Israelis were seen as a vulnerable culture, that was whipped by the force of a tragedy, and a man who had no mercy and they expected them to learn from experience that oppression leads to nowhere but it was something that they forgot quickly; the moment they stepped in Palestine they were determined to take over their land and nowadays they still attack them with bombs and guns when Palestinians are a society living in misery and their weapons consist on rocks and immolations, so it seems that history didn’t leave a lesson to flow because the oppression and the mass murder the Jews went through its lived by Palestine now days in a more elegant way backed by those who claim to be the guardians of human rights.

    Reply
    • Good work Valentina, though I think you are a little biased. It is true that many injustices occur, but they happen on both sides; when one is to tell historical events it is important to be objective. Please restate your response avoiding subjectivity.

      Reply
  21. Valentina Perea

     /  April 27, 2016

    Fascisim
    1.There were many fascist parties throughout the 20th century, it was present in Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, Romania and Italy; it was mostly know in Italy thanks to their current head of government Benito Mussolini; he forced this movement, he united with Hitler because they both believed that the strong nationalism and the dictatorship would lead to a perfect way of government; though his movement had a lot in common with Nazism it wasn’t the same and it didn’t have the same repercussions as the Nazism had and since both countries come from different backgrounds they were implemented as necessary; the immediate effect was the reign of Mussolini over Italy, this movement rose thanks to the First World War since it left Italy in misery, this party came with the idea of getting out of the crisis and regaining freedom from the situation they lived in, thanks to this it was received extremely well by the Italian people who supported the movement making Italy a dictatorship who thought there wasn’t anything better, kneeling down to Benito Mussolini; they became a nation who believed that its unity would guide them to success and expansionism was necessary since they claimed to be reacquiring old territories that were by right Italian

    2. Effect in the late 20th century and early 21
    After the allies won the second world war Italy had fallen back into its misery but this time it was worse; thanks to their dictator, but they managed to establish their economy and rise up again to be an economical superpower; the idea planted in the heads of the Italian is far from forgotten since there are still people that believe in the fascism imposed by Mussolini in the 20th century claiming that he made many good things but that he indeed helped Italy in great manners; this is an ideology that wasn’t created by him but he became his exponent and thanks to him it has an impact in nowadays society which looks up to the unity of Italy in the mid-20th century. It also had influences at the end of the 20th century in countries like Argentina in which one of its president believed blindly that this ideology would serve his country
    3. Fact to discuss
    Fascism presented a form of economy in which it capitalism and socialism was mixed since this movement believe that the domestic class conflict within people of one nation had to be fixed for it to work fine; it was in its way a form of machoism since they believed that women were the breeders of the nations and men were destined to be warriors and that that was the way things should be; surprisingly the population was more than content with this way of thinking and they adopted it as fine as the ideology of having a dictator and the fact they didn’t have any power concerning politics.

    Reply
    • Good work Valentina. Notice your English is not perfect but allows you to convey meaning clearly. I hope to see the same level in the test.

      Reply
  22. Maria Alejandra Mendoza

     /  April 27, 2016

    Picasso, John Millington Synge, Igor Stravinsky
    1. Tell the immediate effects the event or fact had in history: It involved a transformation in all the ways of art, especially on Europe. Picasso with his cubist painting and his unique techniques and works, never tried to copy anybody bringing new, radical and extreme styles. Millington with new and revolutionary ideas in Theater always showed different stories about the country life. And, last but not least, we can find Stravinsky with his primitive and sexual techniques in ballet. All of them standed out in different areas and showed people other ways of seeing life and art.
    2. Explain the effects the event or fact had in late 20th century and early 21st: All of the works they made challenged the traditional values of beauty and order that society thought were correct. They opened new avenues of expression different from the forms of art a decade before the Great War. Even nowadays people can’t get enough of Picasso’s works, he represents a living force, accessible and universal, and he’s more than a historical figure. Millington showed with his dramatic works an understanding of the way he lived life, which include dialects and characters that represent the fatalistic (submission to fate) society had. In the terms of music, Stravinsky lead the orchestra of recordings, he always saw society in a real and raw way, exactly like it was at that point in time.
    3. Discuss other issues (a least one), which can be told about the event or fact: This type of art exposed new, erotic, revolutionary and innovative ideas before the war, but later, with all the British soldiers that died, people developed a cynical attitude towards life, different from the one that has already been mentioned. Picasso represented in his works the strangeness of human relationships, the mystery in the simplest experiences and the difficulty of knowing the fullness of life. Millington represented the mysticism of the time, all the ideas that don’t have scientific reliability, but at the same time he didn’t sympathize with the traditional religious believes. Finally Stravinsky is an inspiration for Jazz musicians nowadays, seen as a classical composer and admired by his use of harmonies.

    Reply

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